penguin is the second most abundant Antarctic/subantarctic
penguin, after the Macaroni.
They are mainly concentrated in vast colonies along the coast
of South Orkneys, South Shetlands and South Sandwich Islands.
There are also small breeding colonies on the Balleny Islands,
south of New Zealand.Although population changes have been
detected among colonies on the Antarctic Peninsula, the overall
Chinstraps population seems stable.
Individuals of this species are recognized by the narrow band
of black feathers which extends from ear to ear, just below
the chin and the cheeks, hence the name. This distinctive,
thin black line distinguishes Chinstraps from Adelies
and Gentoos, the
other two members of its genus. Chinstraps are also smaller
of the Chinstrap consists of: small shoaling animals, krill,
small fish and other roaming marine crustaceans. They are
considered near-shore feeders foraging among the pack ice,
although vagrants may occasionally be seen in the open sea.
They feed by pursuit-diving for prey close to their breeding
colonies. Diving effort is usually concentrated near midnight
and noon and dives typically last less than a minute and are
seldom more than 200 feet deep. Like most penguins, Chinstraps
using their flippers to 'fly' at speeds of up to 20 miles
per hour. On land, Chinstraps often 'toboggan' on their stomachs,
propelling themselves by their feet and flippers. They climb
out of the water and up steep slopes using all four limbs
and they are able to jump large distances to reach footholds.
penguins lay two eggs in November or December and the chicks
fledge at about seven to eight weeks in late February and
early March. Unlike other penguins species where the stronger
chick is fed preferentially, Chinstrap parents treat both
chicks equally. Scientists believe that extensive sea-ice
persisting close to shore can restrict access to the sea for
foraging adults and therefore impact chick survival.
Chinstrap penguins are not considered to be migratory, they
do leave their colonies and move north of the pack ice in
March through to early May for the winter.
predator of adult Chinstraps is the Leopard
seal, while the main predators of eggs and chicks are
and the Brown